Of the six republics of the former Yugoslavia disappeared in 1991 with the fall of communism, only two have become members of the European Union. Slovenia was the first to join (2004), after a request made in 1996. Croatia is the last state to join the EU (2013), ten years after expressing the wish to do so.
The others are waiting. North Macedonia made its request in 2004, received candidate status in 2005, but has been patient in the antechamber of the EU for eighteen years. Montenegro, which began its process in 2008, obtained candidate status in 2010. Serbia applied in 2009. It has been a candidate since 2012.
Bosnia and Herzegovina came forward in 2016. For the time being, the status of candidate has not been granted to him. Kosovo (which did not yet exist as a republic at the time of the former Yugoslavia) did not apply, but expressed its desire to join the EU.